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Kangaroo Mother Care, Skin-To-Skin Contact, and the Risk of Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse

Skin to skin sleeping baby
In January, a study published in Pediatrics, the American Academy of Pediatrics’ flagship peer-reviewed journal, presented evidence in support of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) and its primary intervention: prolonged skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between a mother and her newborn child. I was originally asked to discuss this report at the time by the editors of The Scientific Parent, which is a great resource by the way, but I wanted to expand on my initial thoughts after letting them simmer for a bit over the past few weeks. Please check out the great work done by Leslie and Julia over at TSP after you finish this post.
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Posted in: Science and the Media

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Baby Translating Technology: Revolutionary Parenting Tool or Confirmation Bias Bonanza

stupidbaby
Caring for a young infant, although a potentially rewarding means of producing a labor force for chores and minor home repairs, can be a trying ordeal for both new and experienced parents. The peaks and valleys of parental experience can leave a caregiver both exhilarated and agonizingly frustrated during a single hour of childcare, let alone the first few months. It is not an uncommon experience for a parent to rapidly alternate between extreme states of emotional arousal, one minute gazing down at their sleeping baby with seemingly limitless feelings of joy and love, and the next panicking at the perception that it has been too long since their baby’s last breath.

Babies, especially stupid ones, require near constant attention during the first several weeks of life, and that’s if it is going well. There is no user manual for the care of the newborn human that could possibly describe every situation and how to effectively respond to it in each individual child. A trial and error approach is always necessary to some degree, and it tends to result in a lot of sleepless nights, with many parents finding themselves more exhausted than they ever dreamed possible. So it shouldn’t be surprising that parents are a particularly vulnerable population when it comes to the marketing claims of bogus technology aimed at making their lives even the slightest bit easier. (more…)

Posted in: Science and Medicine

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Separating Fact from Fiction in Pediatric Medicine: Ear Infections

chiroears

Please don’t try chiropractic first, or at all, for any pediatric condition

As discussed numerous times on the pages of Science-Based Medicine, children are increasingly a target of chiropractors, with some even pushing for recognition as primary care practitioners. Despite a thoroughly inadequate training, and a lack of experience with ill pediatric patients, they believe that they have what it takes to recognize and manage common pediatric conditions or refer to an actual pediatric medical professional when they deem it appropriate. While a significant percentage of pediatric illness is self-limited, and thus might appear to respond to chiropractic manipulation, I have seen many deteriorate quickly and with little warning. The idea of an ill child suffering at the hands of a charlatan is terrifying.

Many chiropractors are of course more than happy to see pediatric patients without acting as their PCP. They love to claim that children are at risk of developing misalignment of the bones of the skull and spine, chiropractic subluxations, and numerous other conditions unique to alternative medical reality, particularly during the first few years of life. They tell caregivers that these insults can be subtle, or even silent for years, and that regular maintenance care is required to prevent severe problems, even going so far as to blame SIDS and “shaken baby syndrome” on these fictional entities.

Many chiropractors are also quick to claim that they can prevent or cure some of the most common conditions seen by pediatricians and family healthcare providers, such as viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, asthma, bedwetting, and ear infections to name just a few. By simply improving the function of the nervous system, chiropractors believe that they can “boost” the immune system’s ability to fight infections, improve control over bladder function, and even reduce airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction. If you think that sounds like nonsense, you’re right!

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Posted in: Science and Medicine

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Acupuncture/TCPM Crapfest

Acupuncture needling

Look Ma! No gloves!

As I get older I get more grumpy. Issues that at one time I was rather sanguine about, now irritate the hell out of me. It is not like it was when I started practice. Information was hard to come by. Going through the Index Medicus, with the world’s tiniest font, wandering the stacks looking for papers, sending off for reprints, getting a precious Xerox (or even a mimeograph) of a classic paper from an attending.

You understood the value of eminence-based medicine, as it took a career to acquire and master the literature. You relied on the wisdom of old geezers like me who had decades of experience and reading.

That was then. Now? The world’s information is available almost instantaneously. You may not be able to master a new topic spending a day on Google and Pubmed, but you can acquire a reasonable understanding, especially of you have some background.

Because of Google and Pubmed, the only reasons for ignorance of your area of expertise in medicine are time, laziness, or stupidity. As a specialist, only time is an excuse. It is my job to keep up with infectious diseases, although with over 10,000 articles a year in ID, it is impossible to read everything. But if I have a question concerning patient care, I need to look it up. I have another blog whose raison d’être is looking up answers to the daily questions that arise in practice.

On the characteristics of a useful clinical trial

So the characteristics of a useful clinical trial are not hard to determine: Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, adequately powered. Because you want to avoid spending time and money on a study only to end up with no useful conclusions. This is especially important with acupuncture where it not does matter what kind of acupuncture is used, if needles are used, where the needles are placed or even if you mime acupuncture or perform acupuncture on a rubber hand. The key features for success in acupuncture are belief that the patient is receiving acupuncture and that the patient believes the acupuncture will be effective. And the stronger the belief, the better the subjective response. (more…)

Posted in: Acupuncture, Clinical Trials, Traditional Chinese Medicine

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A “Natural Cure” for Eczema Leaves a Young Child in Agony…..

polarbear3

“I swear I had nothing to do with this!”

A short post today, for me at least, but an important one to file away for the next time somebody asks “What’s the harm?” during a discussion on the use of irregular medicine in the care of pediatric (or any) patients.

The case

The September 2015 issue of Pediatrics in Review, the official American Academy of Pediatrics source for continuing medical education, contains a case report that should be of particular interest to readers of Science-Based Medicine. The authors, pediatricians at Children’s Hospital at Albany Medical Center, describe the ordeal of a six-year-old boy, previously healthy except for eczema, suffering with lower extremity pain to the point of crying with attempts to walk or to even bear weight. For those of you who don’t have experience with children of this age, it takes a considerable amount of discomfort or disability to interfere with their determination to remain in a near constant state of motion. Refusal to bear weight is a red flag that we take very seriously as the cause in a young child is often serious, ranging from traumatic injuries and severe infections of the bones or joints to diagnostic dilemmas such as leukemia and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (more…)

Posted in: Science and Medicine

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Here be Dragons: Caring for Children in a Dangerous Sea of sCAM

Here be dragons large map

As a pediatrician working in a relatively sCAM-inclined region, it is not uncommon to find myself taking care of patients who are also being followed by so-called alternative medicine practitioners. This often creates a major obstacle to providing appropriate care and establishing an atmosphere of mutual trust in the provider-patient/parent relationship. It usually makes me feel like I’m battling invisible serpents in a sea of sCAM.

While these double-dipping parents utilize a variety of sCAM providers, including naturopaths, homeopaths, chiropractors, and a smattering of “holistic healers”, most are taking their children to one of a few “wellness” centers near my practice where they are seen by actual medical doctors practicing so-called “integrative medicine”. Many of these children have vague, chronic, usually non-specific complaints that are difficult to explain and thus to treat. Some have behavioral and mental health problems, or neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism for which parents are seeking explanations and treatments.

What I find to be a common theme with these patients is that they and their parents are summarily taken advantage of by their alternative care providers when they are given a fictitious diagnosis and treated with a variety of useless potions, elixers, and false hopes. Often, parents bring their children to these providers because they are frustrated by their child’s chronic complaints of fatigue, pain, or other somatic issues that have eluded a satisfactory diagnosis or treatment. Invariably, the diagnosis that has remained so elusive to me is quickly found and treated by these much more “holistic” and open-minded providers. In fact, I have never seen a consultation note from one of these providers indicating any uncertainty as to diagnosis or treatment regimen. Typically a large battery of expensive, inappropriate, and sometimes outright fraudulent lab tests is ordered, often from equally questionable laboratories. Again, there are invariably interesting findings prompting tailored and bizarre treatments. In typical red-flag sCAM fashion, some of these providers have their own supplement store, available online only to their patients, prominently displayed on their website. These providers are perceived as being more holistically informed about health and wellness then “conventional” doctors like myself, as if there are two distinct ways of treating illness and maintaining health…as if there is truly such a thing as alternative medicine.

It can be very difficult to manage patients who are being simultaneously “treated” by such providers. Sometimes the treatments complicate or confuse the picture, but it always indicates a failure of trust in the “conventional” method of practice, which is science and evidence based, and in science itself.

Below are a few examples of patients cared for by my practice and simultaneously followed by alternative medicine practitioners. They provide a good picture of just how problematic these co-practitioners can be. No names or identifying information are revealed. (more…)

Posted in: Diagnostic tests & procedures, Herbs & Supplements, Naturopathy, Pharmaceuticals, Science and Medicine

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The Science of Mom: A Science-Based Book about Baby Care

From the author's website: "Shameless use of cute baby to promote book"

From the author’s website: “Shameless use of cute baby to promote book”

When a baby is born, parents are often awed and alarmed to find themselves responsible for this tiny new person, and they desperately want to do their very best to keep their infant safe and healthy. New mothers worry about everything from SIDS to vaccines, from feeding practices to sleep hygiene, and they are bombarded with conflicting advice about caring for their babies. Myths and misinformation abound. Finally someone has written a truly science-based guide to the first year of life: The Science of Mom. The author, Alice Callahan, is a research scientist with a PhD in nutritional biology. When her first child was born, she had a lot of questions, and thanks to her background she knew how to look for reliable answers in the scientific literature. She started writing the Science of Mom blog and eventually turned her findings into a book.

Understanding science

Her first chapter covers the important concepts for understanding how to think about scientific studies:

  • Good science is a process that takes lots of experiments, time, and people.
  • Good science is peer-reviewed.
  • One study on its own isn’t worth much, but scientific consensus is trustworthy.
  • Some studies are more valuable than others (here she covers the various types of study from animal studies through observational studies in humans to RCTs and meta-analyses).
  • Numbers matter (sample sizes).
  • Don’t believe everything you read on the Internet (here she gives some practical tips for evaluating whether a website is reliable).
  • Correlation is not causation (she uses my favorite example of the correlation between autism diagnoses and the sales of organic food).
  • We can’t eliminate risks (but science can quantify the risks and benefits and families can use the information to decide what risks they are personally willing to take).
  • Find smart allies (experts and providers you can trust).
  • Forget about perfection and pay attention to your baby.

(more…)

Posted in: Book & movie reviews, Nutrition, Vaccines

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Don’t just stand there, do nothing! The difference between science-based medicine and quackery

Tree of Life - the first-known sketch by Charles Darwin of an evolutionary tree describing the relationships among groups of organisms (Cambridge University Library).

Tree of Life – the first-known sketch by Charles Darwin of an evolutionary tree describing the relationships among groups of organisms (Cambridge University Library).

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines science as:

Knowledge about or study of the natural world based on facts learned through experiments and observation.

And:

Knowledge as distinguished from ignorance or misunderstanding.

While this should distinguish science from pseudoscience, those who practice the latter often lay claim to the same definition. But one of the major differences between science and pseudoscience is that science advances through constant rejection and revision of prior models and hypotheses as new evidence is produced; it evolves. This is the antithesis of pseudoscience. At the heart of pseudoscience-based medicine (PBM) is dogma and belief. It clings to its preconceptions and never changes in order to improve. It thrives on the intransigence of its belief system, and rejects threats to its dogma. Despite the constant claims by peddlers of pseudoscience that SBM practitioners are closed-minded, we know that, in fact, PBM is the ultimate in closed-minded belief. Of course, those of us who claim to practice SBM aren’t always quick to adopt new evidence. We sometimes continue practices that may once have been the standard of care but are no longer supported by the best available evidence, or perhaps may even be contradicted by the latest evidence. Often this is a byproduct of habituated practice and a failure to keep current with the literature. While this is certainly a failure of modern medicine, it is not an inevitable outcome. It is not emblematic of the practice of medicine, as it is with PBM. When medicine is science-based, it strives for continual improvement based on modifications around emerging evidence. (more…)

Posted in: Critical Thinking, Medical Ethics, Public Health, Science and Medicine

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Hot-Zone Schools and Children at Risk: Shedding light on outbreak-prone schools

The subject of parental vaccine refusal and the impact that has on disease outbreaks has been covered many times on SBM and elsewhere. I apologize to our readers who are growing tired of the subject, but there is perhaps no subject more deserving of focus and repetition. There’s also an important angle to the discussion that I’ve written on previously and which deserves more attention, and that is the importance of the pro-vaccine parent voice, and the need for that voice to be heard.

It never ceases to amaze me how few of the parents I know think about the risk to their own children from vaccine-exempt children in their schools and communities. Even parents who do think about this rarely seem concerned enough to speak up or even discuss it with others, let alone become active in doing something about it. With the rise in vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, including the current high-profile Disneyland measles outbreak, and the ongoing pertussis epidemic in California, the tide seems at least to be turning slightly. The dramatic impact that vaccine refusal and the resultant decline in herd-immunity can have on a community is now penetrating the public consciousness. My hope is that parental awareness and outrage grow regarding the flagrant disregard of science, common sense, and citizenship exhibited by those parents who refuse to properly vaccinate their children. My hope is that the culture of tolerance of this intolerable anti-science threat begins to turn, and that it is no longer seen as acceptable for some parents to put the safety of others at risk.

Which brings me to the focus of this post. (more…)

Posted in: Epidemiology, Legal, Public Health, Science and Medicine, Vaccines

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If you don’t buy this supplement for your child, you’re a terrible parent

kids-dha-cerebrum-small

The supplement industry wants you to buy their products, and they’re not above using a little parental guilt to make you into a customer. In the photo above, the promoter is my local pharmacy, where the large window display caught my eye:

Give your Child The Tools to SUCCEED in School!

Who doesn’t want their child to succeed? And if you knew a supplement could give you or your child a learning edge, would you consider it? I’d imagine many do. Supplements have a remarkable health halo. As a pharmacist myself, I’ve noticed this when speaking with patients – few consumers identify any potential risk or downsides to supplement use. Some don’t even think of them as medicine at all. The marketing has resonated: Supplements are perceived as “safe”, “natural” and “effective”. But whether you’re giving your child a prescription medicine to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or you’re giving a supplement to “improve focus and brain function”, you’re still administering a chemical substance to a child with the intent of changing brain function. We’d probably think twice before pouring an unknown substance in our car’s gas tank, especially one claimed to boost performance. We’d probably ask for some evidence that it works, and some assurance it wouldn’t harm our vehicle. A decision to use a drug or supplement in a child deserves just as much consideration of benefits and risks. (more…)

Posted in: Science and Medicine

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