The overall goal of science-based medicine is to maintain and improve the standard of science in the practice of medicine at every level. At the heart of the scientific basis of medical knowledge and practice is a process known as peer-review. We have occasionally written about peer-review on SBM, and once again the process is under the microscope over a specific question – should peer review be open or blinded?
What is peer review
The term peer-review refers to a pre-publication process in which a journal editor will send a submitted manuscript to 2-3 experts in a field relevant to the paper to carefully examine every aspect of the paper. They then provide a detailed analysis of the paper: is the research question relevant and appropriate, did the study design properly address the question, were the methods rigorous, was the statistical analysis appropriate, was the data presented fairly, are the conclusions supported by the data, did the authors account for other publications addressing the same issue, and did they address every possible question or objection?
The reviewers’ reports will make specific recommendations for changes that would be necessary to improve the paper, and also make their bottom-line recommendation: accept as is, accept with revisions, or deny. The journal editor(s) then rely upon those reviews, plus their own assessment, to make a final decision.